Archive for February, 2022

Feb 14 2022

Spin Drive

Published by under Quantum Field Theory

When an electron enters an atomic orbital, it receives a signal from the nucleus that changes and redefines its internal wavefunctions to a configuration that can accept more than 137 gravitons. It can then grow in diameter, mass, and charge. At the end of an arc, at a spin flip, the electron reduces to 1.3335 x 10-15 diameter and free electron structure. It is likely that another wave function signal comes immediately after the spin flip signal to set unlimited graviton absorption mode again. At the face of the earth, and at many other places in the universe, the gravitational field is very dense, and can carry many signals in the form of field quanta. I prefer to call them massless signals or messengers and give quantum field theorists the leeway to name them. Some names will come from existing tables.

A nucleus would know the number of electrons in orbit and exactly where they are in relation to the nucleus at any given time. An analogy might be a cell phone tower monitoring numerous cell phones in its vicinity.

It is acceptable to name gravitons differently when inside an electron because they can be greatly compressed. Wavelength is shorter and amplitude is normally smaller. In a large nucleus there would be wider variability with these parameters. In either instance, the gravitons are changed and compactified. Wave packets may form, such as with harmonics in music, selecting a few integer wavelengths to fit inside a longer wavelength, with position boundary conditions matching.

As for free electrons, these exchange gravitons as well. It is not two at a time exchange but a one for one exchange. This leaves the electron jiggling and/or pulsating.  Gravitons entering an electron drive the spin, even if they do not pass through. For this we have the example of the metal pump top:

Once an electron escapes an orbital, as in metals, it reduces to free electron diameter and internal mode. It is only a free electron that continually produces a fundamental charge of 1.602 x 10-19 C.

No responses yet

Feb 11 2022

Isotropic Property of the Coulomb Potential

In the vicinity of where our machines have been, we know that electric current will flow in any designated direction and is not particular to the direction of the highest flux density of gravitons.

For various reasons, we cannot have protons and electrons continuously flipping, – the Stern-Gerlach experiment proves that they do not. There must be internal processes of the proton and electron which produce isotropic electric fields. Some of this was previously addressed in two blog entries:

It is possible that not all conjugate wave gravitons pass straight through a proton or electron, or that even with a free proton or electron that the gravitons leaving have just entered. Some may make a horseshoe pattern and come out near the same point entered. They may be able to come back out at any angle. As compressed as the gravitons become inside a particle, almost any shape can occur. Gravitational pressure dictates a consistent size of a free proton or electron.

With the flux density coming out of the face of the earth, we seem to have a conundrum with the idea of gravitational pressure, one side having much greater pressure than the other. Why do gravitons not burst out the top, resulting in particle collapse? It also begs the question as to why electrons are perfectly round, and not teardrop shaped:

Possibly, branes form at the top of an electron and reform in a spin flip.  These branes would be linked inside the particle so that they do not bust out, and may deflect some exiting gravitons at various angles. These branes may also help keep the electron round. Here we are designating “top” as away from the highest flux density of gravitons.

As far as isotropic fields, at this point we must say that it is designed internal to the proton or electron and is of consistent pattern.  The open field starts just outside the particle, so it is maintained that electric and magnetic fields transmit openly by “phase shift and chirality” or “phase shift and parity”.  The Coulomb force is considered instantaneous at reasonable distances:

It appears as though this is necessary, because then the speed that free gravitons travel at, the speed of light in a vacuum, does not effect the electric and magnetic fields generated.

No responses yet

Feb 10 2022


Inside a proton or electron, events may approach the Planck length.  The frequency of the waves would not change from that of a free space graviton, though wavelength and amplitude do change.

Waves inside a particle may make loops in certain circumstances, not necessarily around the perimeter, though internally, and required because of all the traffic.

Certainly, the ways these vibrations set up in a proton or electron determines whether we have a positive or negative charge.  If we did not have any loops and curves, the versatility needed would be hard to set up.  It is somewhat like a Hilbert space with wrapped up dimensions.

Put another way: “A string vibrating in one particular pattern might have the properties of an electron, while a string vibrating in a different pattern might have the properties of an up-quark, a down-quark, or any of the other particle species in Table 12.1.  It is not that an “electron string” makes up an electron …Instead the single species of string can account for a great variety of particles …” *

If you peruse this website, you will find other areas of unification.

* Greene, Brian, The Fabric of the Cosmos, c. 2004 Vintage Books, a division of Random House, Inc., p. 346-347

No responses yet

Feb 09 2022

Core of an Electron or Proton

We can see from the calculation of the diameter of a free electron that as the density of the gravitational field goes down, the diameter increases.  This would be because of less gravitational pressure on the outside of the electron.

As gravitons enter a proton, electron, neutron, or nucleus, as conjugate waves or to take residence, the buildup takes on a fuzzy look that makes them look larger.  If we take a core diameter of 1.3335 x 10-15 m, the part that produces the fundamental charge, and add one graviton wavelength, we arrive at 5.30 x 10-15 m diameter, which is close to the classical diameter of the electron, 5.64 x 10-15 m *.  One graviton wavelength is used because one-half wavelength is on one side of the electron and one-half wavelength of a different graviton is on the other side.

We may call these outer layer gravitons tentacles or strings.  When nuclear fission occurs, the de Broglie wavelength of a neutron can come in at an angle where the strings on each entity hook and help pull the neutron into the nucleus. The cross section for this process is larger for slow neutrons vs fast neutrons in part because of the longer de Broglie wavelength.

* Jackson, J. D., Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition, c. 1999 John David Jackson, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., p. 695

No responses yet