Archive for the 'Astrophysics' Category

Feb 09 2022

Core of an Electron or Proton

We can see from the calculation of the diameter of a free electron that as the density of the gravitational field goes down, the diameter increases.  This would be because of less gravitational pressure on the outside of the electron.

As gravitons enter a proton, electron, neutron, or nucleus, as conjugate waves or to take residence, the buildup takes on a fuzzy look that makes them look larger.  If we take a core diameter of 1.3335 x 10-15 m, the part that produces the fundamental charge, and add one graviton wavelength, we arrive at 5.30 x 10-15 m diameter, which is close to the classical diameter of the electron, 5.64 x 10-15 m *.  One graviton wavelength is used because one-half wavelength is on one side of the electron and one-half wavelength of a different graviton is on the other side.

We may call these outer layer gravitons tentacles or strings.  When nuclear fission occurs, the de Broglie wavelength of a neutron can come in at an angle where the strings on each entity hook and help pull the neutron into the nucleus. The cross section for this process is larger for slow neutrons vs fast neutrons in part because of the longer de Broglie wavelength.

* Jackson, J. D., Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition, c. 1999 John David Jackson, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., p. 695

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Nov 14 2021

Greatest Lower Bound

One would guess that the particle physicists and quantum field theorists may like a 1.3335 x 10-15 m diameter of a free electron, because it is closer to a point particle than many estimates of the diameter.  It is possible that 1.3335 x 10-15 m is also the limit inferior of the sequence S137 to Sn in an atomic orbital.

The maximum diameter, on the other hand, will depend on the element and on the orbital.  At a spin flip, electrons in all orbitals may reduce to 1.3335 x 10-15 m, before taking off on a new trajectory and increasing in diameter again.  We cannot speak of a limit superior of the sequence of diameters of the electron in an atomic orbital nevertheless.  That will depend on the direction of electron travel, and on whether the atom is at the surface of the earth, or at some other planet.  For the latter, it depends on the density of the gravitational field.

We may also ask whether 1.3335 x 10-15 m is the greatest lower bound at all locations in the universe.  This raises the question of whether the fine structure constant is a universal constant, or whether or not the Coulomb gauge is the same everywhere.

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Jun 04 2020

Fermi Bubbles

Published by under Astrophysics

This June 2020 article on the Fermi Bubbles of the Milky Way Galaxy concerns mapping the bubbles in the visible light spectrum: https://phys.org/news/2020-06-optical-milky-fermi-probe.html

The bubbles were originally found in the gamma ray spectrum. Previous entries are here: http://www.fruechtetheory.com/blog/2010/11/25/light-lensing-and-the-gamma-ray-bubbles/, and here: http://www.fruechtetheory.com/blog/2010/11/29/lensing-answer/

As far as their purpose, they may help stabilize the plane of the Milky Way by emitting gamma rays in a narrow Gaussian centered on 7.562 x 10^22 Hz. I have read that researchers have found that the same type of bubbles exist at other galaxies as well.

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Dec 04 2019

PSP

Published by under Astrophysics

NASA’s Parker Solar Probe was pulled to high speed toward the sun by the sun’s strong gravity, while plasma and the solar wind were coming the other way. The nuclei in the solar wind fly away from the sun at incredible speed, not pulled by gravity and possibly pushed by the high flux of gamma rays.

No time to write longer entries. Working full time as an engineer again.

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Oct 27 2019

Medical Uses

Took a walk on campus on this beautiful sunny autumn day, and when walking by the Microbial Sciences building it reminded me of possible medical uses for the gamma rays.  For example, using layers of high voltage plates, the gamma rays can be downscattered into lower energy gamma rays or x-rays.  The plates may be stepped down in area as traversing upward, so that specific wavelengths may be focused on smaller areas.

Most of the benefits of the general knowledge that we are in a dense gamma ray field will be found and developed by coming generations.  Nevertheless, the public already knows about the gamma ray field because gamma ray space telescopes have measured it since the 1990’s.  Medical research could be started without the researchers even knowing that it is gravity.

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Aug 19 2019

The News

Published by under Astrophysics,Quantum Mechanics

News again says that the moon is glowing in gamma rays in the MeV range, and if people go back to the moon they will have to be shielded from the gamma rays. Of course scientists came up with a reason for the gamma rays, other than gravity, because they had to.

If astronauts were shielded completely from gamma rays, that would be trouble. Biological matter needs gamma rays at and close to 312.76 MeV to stay alive.

It should be noted, nevertheless, that there are lots of bare nuclei in the solar wind. The effects of constant exposure to the nuclei, and other non-gravity radiation, need to be looked at by qualified professionals.

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Aug 04 2019

Gamma Ray Field

It has been alluded to before on this website that the thick gamma ray field in which we reside is reminiscent of the aether.  A good book on the subject was written by Joseph Larmor.  Here is a sample:

“The basis of the present scientific procedure thus rests on the view, derivable as a consequence of general philosophical ideas, that the master-key to a complete unravelling of the general dynamical and physical relations of matter lies in the fact that it is constituted as a discrete molecular aggregate existing in the aether.” *

In the same paragraph, Larmor refers to “the properties of a continuum in space,”.

* Larmor, Joseph, AETHER AND MATTER, CAMBRIDGE AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1900, p. 78

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Feb 09 2017

E = mc^2

It occurred to me in January or February 2008, during my first foray into Quantum Mechanics, that the reason there is no 1/2 factor in front of mc^2 in Einstein’s formula E=mc^2, – like there is in the Newtonian formula for kinetic energy K. E. = (1/2)mv^2, is that there are gravitons inside a fundamental particle that are bouncing back and forth against gravitational pressure on the outside, which doubles the energy.

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Jun 02 2016

They still do not get it

Published by under Astrophysics

Probably will long be gone before those prideful and arrogant physicists begin to understand.  The Milky Way is expanding at an ever increasing rate.  Gravitons keep escaping, and the rate of expansion will slowly increase.  Take the measurements next year and then adjust the calculations.

 

Here is another item that shows what is meant:

http://news.berkeley.edu/2016/06/02/universe-expanding-faster-than-expected/

 

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Dec 18 2015

Luminiferous Aether

Published by under Astrophysics

In “A Fight for the Soul of Science”, by Natalie Wolchover, found here: https://www.quantamagazine.org/20151216-physicists-and-philosophers-debate-the-boundaries-of-science/, it is stated that Helge Kragh was at the recent meeting at Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich, and “spoke about the 19th-century vortex theory of atoms.” At that time, more than 115 years ago, it was apparently “postulated that atoms are microscopic vortexes in the ether, the fluid medium that was believed at the time to fill space.”

The luminiferous aether theory preceded the Rutherford / Bohr model of the atom, so atoms were thought of as chemistry’s most discrete particles and not as nuclei with orbiting electrons. The concentrated particles were later separated into nuclei and electrons, and these can once again be thought of as vortexes in a gravitational medium that is so thick with gravitons that the medium could be called the aether.

Part of the present problem with physics is that the ideas did not historically come together with perfect timing, and were not studied together. Now, in 2015, we cannot see the forest for the trees.

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