Archive for the 'Astrophysics' Category

Jul 06 2023

Polarization Factor

It has been said that the Coulomb field transmits by torsion and centrifugal force:

In the near field of molecules there are van der Waals attractive forces “proportional to 1/r7.“ ([1], pg. 390) This is a fast reduction, in part due to the polarization factor, which is very strong, though not as strong as the Coulomb force of a concentrated charge of mass when another concentrated charge of mass is nearby.

Kobayashi and Nomizu put it this way:

“Theorem 2.2.  Every Riemannian manifold admits a unique metric connection with vanishing torsion.” ([2], pg. 158)

Additionally, there is an “invariant Riemannian metric which is naturally reductive”. ([3], pg. 377)

It has been said before that gauge invariance is local at a given time. When it is referred to as a “unique metric connection”, the instantaneous density of the gravitational field at an area of the surface of any planet is unique.

One reason the potential energy of a point charge is not infinite was given here:

In real time, the polarization factor is the reason the potential energy of a point charge is not infinite.

[1] Tipler, Paul A. and Llewellyn, Ralph A., “Modern Physics Sixth Edition”, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, c. 2012

[2] Kobayashi, Shoshichi and Nomizu, Katsumi, “Foundations of Differential Geometry Volume I”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., c. 1963

[3] Kobayashi, Shoshichi and Nomizu, Katsumi, “Foundations of Differential Geometry Volume II”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., c. 1969

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Mar 06 2023

Emitting Cell Phone, Radio, and Television EM Waves

Let us say there is an imaginary horizontal disk centered on a vertical, unshielded emitting antenna. Cosine waves of various frequencies and amplitudes go out in all directions centered on the disk. As a cosine wave travels away from the disk, it imbues EM waves of the same frequency perpendicular outward to the electric part of the cosine wave in a push. As the cosine wave comes back toward the disk, there is no push, preventing double signals. Each torus grows continually until it runs out of momentum, and in a complex set of signals there are many interspersed tori.

The amplitude of each cosine signal, as it multiplies, may not be constant throughout the torus, though frequency is. For a given location of a receiving antenna, the amplitude ratios of all the signals are the same.

By the 80:20 rule, 80% of a cell phone, radio, or television EM wave travels through the h field, and 20% travels by using the g field. According to Morse Theory, 100% travels through the h field:

“ h + n(I) = dim H ≤ a(I) = i(I) + n(I), so h ≤ i(I) “      ([1], pg. 233)

This is from the proof of Theorem 6, and in the next section it is written: “the Morse index theorem says that the inequality of theorem 6 is an equation.” ([1], pg. 233) With the torus action: “t passes from 0 to b” ([1], pg. 234) in the positive and negative directions. What is meant by augmented index, a(I), is that the cosine waves, as they are emitted, go out horizontally in all directions from the antenna.

In outer space, the way signals can travel long distances, the Morse index theorem comes very close to reality. In earth’s atmosphere the tori run out of momentum faster.

[1] Bishop, Richard L. and Crittenden, Richard J., “Geometry of Manifolds”, AMS CHELSEA PUBLISHING, Copyright 1964 held by the American Mathematical Society. Reprinted with corrections by the American Mathematical Society, 2001

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Dec 15 2022


At Lawrence Livermore Laboratory a fusion reaction was produced using 192 lasers. By a factor of 1.5, more energy was produced than the energy put in by the lasers.
Early in my education at the University of Wisconsin – Madison, we learned of conservation of energy. If a reaction can absorb enough gravitons during a process, then it would appear that conservation of energy is violated, though it was not really violated.

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Feb 09 2022

Core of an Electron or Proton

We can see from the calculation of the diameter of a free electron that as the density of the gravitational field goes down, the diameter increases.  This would be because of less gravitational pressure on the outside of the electron.

As gravitons enter a proton, electron, neutron, or nucleus, as conjugate waves or to take residence, the buildup takes on a fuzzy look that makes them look larger.  If we take a core diameter of 1.3335 x 10-15 m, the part that produces the fundamental charge, and add one graviton wavelength, we arrive at 5.30 x 10-15 m diameter, which is close to the classical diameter of the electron, 5.64 x 10-15 m *.  One graviton wavelength is used because one-half wavelength is on one side of the electron and one-half wavelength of a different graviton is on the other side.

We may call these outer layer gravitons tentacles or strings.  When nuclear fission occurs, the de Broglie wavelength of a neutron can come in at an angle where the strings on each entity hook and help pull the neutron into the nucleus. The cross section for this process is larger for slow neutrons vs fast neutrons in part because of the longer de Broglie wavelength.

* Jackson, J. D., Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition, c. 1999 John David Jackson, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., p. 695

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Nov 14 2021

Greatest Lower Bound

One would guess that the particle physicists and quantum field theorists may like a 1.3335 x 10-15 m diameter of a free electron, because it is closer to a point particle than many estimates of the diameter.  It is possible that 1.3335 x 10-15 m is also the limit inferior of the sequence S137 to Sn in an atomic orbital.

The maximum diameter, on the other hand, will depend on the element and on the orbital.  At a spin flip, electrons in all orbitals may reduce to 1.3335 x 10-15 m, before taking off on a new trajectory and increasing in diameter again.  We cannot speak of a limit superior of the sequence of diameters of the electron in an atomic orbital nevertheless.  That will depend on the direction of electron travel, and on whether the atom is at the surface of the earth, or at some other planet.  For the latter, it depends on the density of the gravitational field.

We may also ask whether 1.3335 x 10-15 m is the greatest lower bound at all locations in the universe.  This raises the question of whether the fine structure constant is a universal constant, or whether or not the Coulomb gauge is the same everywhere.

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Jun 04 2020

Fermi Bubbles

Published by under Astrophysics

This June 2020 article on the Fermi Bubbles of the Milky Way Galaxy concerns mapping the bubbles in the visible light spectrum:

The bubbles were originally found in the gamma ray spectrum. Previous entries are here:, and here:

As far as their purpose, they may help stabilize the plane of the Milky Way by emitting gamma rays in a narrow Gaussian centered on 7.562 x 10^22 Hz. I have read that researchers have found that the same type of bubbles exist at other galaxies as well.

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Dec 04 2019


Published by under Astrophysics

NASA’s Parker Solar Probe was pulled to high speed toward the sun by the sun’s strong gravity, while plasma and the solar wind were coming the other way. The nuclei in the solar wind fly away from the sun at incredible speed, not pulled by gravity and possibly pushed by the high flux of gamma rays.

No time to write longer entries. Working full time as an engineer again.

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Oct 27 2019

Medical Uses

Took a walk on campus on this beautiful sunny autumn day, and when walking by the Microbial Sciences building it reminded me of possible medical uses for the gamma rays.  For example, using layers of high voltage plates, the gamma rays can be downscattered into lower energy gamma rays or x-rays.  The plates may be stepped down in area as traversing upward, so that specific wavelengths may be focused on smaller areas.

Most of the benefits of the general knowledge that we are in a dense gamma ray field will be found and developed by coming generations.  Nevertheless, the public already knows about the gamma ray field because gamma ray space telescopes have measured it since the 1990’s.  Medical research could be started without the researchers even knowing that it is gravity.

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Aug 19 2019

The News

Published by under Astrophysics,Quantum Mechanics

News again says that the moon is glowing in gamma rays in the MeV range, and if people go back to the moon they will have to be shielded from the gamma rays. Of course scientists came up with a reason for the gamma rays, other than gravity, because they had to.

If astronauts were shielded completely from gamma rays, that would be trouble. Biological matter needs gamma rays at and close to 312.76 MeV to stay alive.

It should be noted, nevertheless, that there are lots of bare nuclei in the solar wind. The effects of constant exposure to the nuclei, and other non-gravity radiation, need to be looked at by qualified professionals.

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Aug 04 2019

Gamma Ray Field

It has been alluded to before on this website that the thick gamma ray field in which we reside is reminiscent of the aether.  A good book on the subject was written by Joseph Larmor.  Here is a sample:

“The basis of the present scientific procedure thus rests on the view, derivable as a consequence of general philosophical ideas, that the master-key to a complete unravelling of the general dynamical and physical relations of matter lies in the fact that it is constituted as a discrete molecular aggregate existing in the aether.” *

In the same paragraph, Larmor refers to “the properties of a continuum in space,”.


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