Archive for the 'Mathematics' Category

Sep 30 2023

Michelson-Morley experiment

It has been said that “The electric field travels faster the denser a gravitational field is, though the speed difference may not be discernable.” Also: “What we have is an infinitesimal zigzag pattern, though when we back out to the classical level, it does not matter for any application.”

Ref: https://www.fruechtetheory.com/blog/2023/01/17/action-of-the-electric-field/

As it turns out, the speed difference may have been indirectly discerned by the Michelson-Morley experiment in 1887, and the “infinitesimal zigzag pattern” is less for a denser gravitational field.

A picture and description of the Michelson-Morley experiment tells it was mounted on a large block of sandstone, for stability, and floated on an annular trough of mercury for rotation.

The block that the experiment was on, and the sensors and brackets in the forward direction of travel of the whole apparatus, would have helped decompress the gamma rays toward the center of the apparatus, near the forward brackets. The brackets behind would have compressed the gamma rays. What was probably happening was a slow-fast travel of the electromagnetic waves in one direction, and a fast-slow travel in the opposite direction.

ηi is when the center t of a gamma ray moves one way in an alternative direction. ξi is a smooth electric field, and ηi and ξi work together to smear electric fields of the gamma rays into electromagnetic waves of larger dimensions, as a laser, emitted cell phone wave, etc. As a tornado takes up air molecules and expels others, these waves of lower frequency than a graviton take up gravitons they reach. “Assume that ξ is affine” ([1], pg. 377), and “ξ is a (column) vector in Rn” ([2], pg. 269). The gravitons that are expelled can take off in almost any direction. “ξi and ηi are orthogonal” ([3], pg. 315], because they are independent. “t” is not an electric field, it is a singularity.

ξi is a member of the H field, though it is specific to an emitted wave, subject to “the compatibility conditions which ξ and H are obliged to satisfy” ([1], pg. 362), and “ξ is a pure translation” ([4], pg. 193).

In the Michelson-Morley experiment, in the denser gamma ray field the ξ field is more efficient and moves faster, and the wavelength is slightly shorter than average. In the less dense gamma ray field, the wavelength is slightly longer than average.

[1] Mackenzie, Kirill C. H., “General Theory of Lie Groupoids and Lie Algebroids”, c. 2005 Kirill C. H. Mackenzie, London Mathematical Society

[2] Kobayashi, Shoshichi and Nomizu, Katsumi, “Foundations of Differential Geometry Volume II”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., c. 1969

[3] Stoker, James J., “Differential Geometry”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., c. 1969

[4] Kobayashi, Shoshichi and Nomizu, Katsumi, “Foundations of Differential Geometry Volume I”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., c. 1963

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Aug 03 2023

Ricci tensor field S

When a free electron accelerates, it may be able to increase in mass, charge, and diameter for the increase in work it must do. Again, we think of an emitting antenna.

We know that “s” can stand for spin, and that electrons have spin. The electrons in the antenna may impart spin into a “tensor space Tsr “ ([1], pg. 209], where “r” is the vector away from the antenna, and “s” is the spin. What we can liken this to is a corkscrew in a gravitational field. Each corkscrew “s is a direct sum of simple ideals: s1 + … +sk” ([2], Appendix 5, pg. 279)

To send these corkscrews out in all directions from an antenna is a phenomenal amount of work. It is not absolutely necessary that accelerated free electrons expand for this to occur, though they would at least absorb gravitons at a greater rate than a free electron at rest or traveling at constant velocity in a straight line.

It is not known what percentage of these corkscrews would be left-handed. When two electrons are near each other, “(βi) is invariant by the left translation” ([2], pg. 207), and they repel each other.

Furthermore to the Ricci tensor field containing spin, there are the following two corollaries:

“Corollary 5.5   If M is a compact Riemannian manifold with vanishing Ricci tensor field, then every infinitesimal isometry of M is a parallel vector field.” ([2], pg. 251)

“Corollary 5.6   If a connected compact homogeneous Riemannian manifold M has zero Ricci tensor, then M is a Euclidean torus.” ([2], pg. 251)

As the output from an emitting antenna turns into tori, there is a “concatenation of paths” ([3], pg. 229].

Of course, as these tori wear out, they disintegrate, because of “a theorem of Weyl that any representation of a semisimple Lie algebra is completely reducible” ([2], Appendix 5, pg. 279]. We now know that these Lie algebras are reducible to gravitons.

[1] Kobayashi, Shoshichi and Nomizu, Katsumi, “Foundations of Differential Geometry Volume II”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., c. 1969

[2] Kobayashi, Shoshichi and Nomizu, Katsumi, “Foundations of Differential Geometry Volume I”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., c. 1963

[3] Mackenzie, Kirill C. H., “General Theory of Lie Groupoids and Lie Algebroids”, c. 2005 Kirill C. H. Mackenzie, London Mathematical Society

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Jul 06 2023

Polarization Factor

It has been said that the Coulomb field transmits by torsion and centrifugal force:

https://www.fruechtetheory.com/blog/2023/01/29/magnetic-fields-as-effecting-coulomb-groups/

https://www.fruechtetheory.com/blog/2022/03/29/transmission-of-the-coulomb-field/

In the near field of molecules there are van der Waals attractive forces “proportional to 1/r7.“ ([1], pg. 390) This is a fast reduction, in part due to the polarization factor, which is very strong, though not as strong as the Coulomb force of a concentrated charge of mass when another concentrated charge of mass is nearby.

Kobayashi and Nomizu put it this way:

“Theorem 2.2.  Every Riemannian manifold admits a unique metric connection with vanishing torsion.” ([2], pg. 158)

Additionally, there is an “invariant Riemannian metric which is naturally reductive”. ([3], pg. 377)

It has been said before that gauge invariance is local at a given time. When it is referred to as a “unique metric connection”, the instantaneous density of the gravitational field at an area of the surface of any planet is unique.

One reason the potential energy of a point charge is not infinite was given here:

https://www.fruechtetheory.com/blog/2009/03/15/electric-charges/

In real time, the polarization factor is the reason the potential energy of a point charge is not infinite.

[1] Tipler, Paul A. and Llewellyn, Ralph A., “Modern Physics Sixth Edition”, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, c. 2012

[2] Kobayashi, Shoshichi and Nomizu, Katsumi, “Foundations of Differential Geometry Volume I”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., c. 1963

[3] Kobayashi, Shoshichi and Nomizu, Katsumi, “Foundations of Differential Geometry Volume II”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., c. 1969

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Mar 17 2023

Nuclear Ideals

On April 10, 2008, it was put forth that “we would have gravitational energy replenishing Coulomb energy through both the electrons and the nucleus of an atom”, through absorption of gamma rays:

https://www.fruechtetheory.com/blog/2008/04/10/the-nucleus-and-gravitons-2/

It wasn’t until 2022 that mathematics was applied to the process, and of course free nuclei and electrons would be absorbing gravitons as well to produce Coulomb fields.

In Krane’s work, the section on Spin-Orbit Potential starts on page 123. There, in the language of atomic physicists applied to nuclear physics: “total angular momentum j = l + s” ([1], pg. 124). In the same way, in the language of differential geometry, Lie groups, and manifolds, J can be called a nucleus, or “an isometry J of N” ([2], pg. 207). There is a “closed embedded submanifold N ⊂ M” ([3], pg. 165), and “N is closed in M” ([2], pg. 236). In this case N is the space atoms and molecules take up, to the outer reaches of the electron orbitals.

In “its ideal system J = (J, R(f), θ) is uniform” ([3], pg. 170). This infers that each different nuclei has a unique structure, and R(f) is the radius of the nuclear fibration. Since nuclei are normally parts of systems of atoms and molecules, θ refers to the angle of an electron arc, and each nucleus knows when to send spin flip signals for each electron arc for which it is responsible. The structure of nuclei is so complex that “covariant derivatives of J vanish” ([2], pg. 142).

As far as holding nuclear material and groups together, magnetic fields are mostly responsible, and serve as the function of chirality in Coulomb fields. As an example, “inductors correspond to, and characterize, pullback groupoids” ([3], pg. 83), as put out from a charged mass. Also, “(φ,f) is an inductor if φ!! is a diffeomorphism” ([3], pg. 176).

[1] Krane, Kenneth S., “Introductory Nuclear Physics”, c. 1988, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

[2] Bishop, Richard L. and Crittenden, Richard J., “Geometry of Manifolds”, AMS CHELSEA PUBLISHING, Copyright 1964 held by the American Mathematical Society. Reprinted with corrections by the American Mathematical Society, 2001

[3] Mackenzie, Kirill C. H., “General Theory of Lie Groupoids and Lie Algebroids”, c. 2005 Kirill C. H. Mackenzie, London Mathematical Society

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Mar 06 2023

Emitting Cell Phone, Radio, and Television EM Waves

Let us say there is an imaginary horizontal disk centered on a vertical, unshielded emitting antenna. Cosine waves of various frequencies and amplitudes go out in all directions centered on the disk. As a cosine wave travels away from the disk, it imbues EM waves of the same frequency perpendicular outward to the electric part of the cosine wave in a push. As the cosine wave comes back toward the disk, there is no push, preventing double signals. Each torus grows continually until it runs out of momentum, and in a complex set of signals there are many interspersed tori.

The amplitude of each cosine signal, as it multiplies, may not be constant throughout the torus, though frequency is. For a given location of a receiving antenna, the amplitude ratios of all the signals are the same.

By the 80:20 rule, 80% of a cell phone, radio, or television EM wave travels through the h field, and 20% travels by using the g field. According to Morse Theory, 100% travels through the h field:

“ h + n(I) = dim H ≤ a(I) = i(I) + n(I), so h ≤ i(I) “      ([1], pg. 233)

This is from the proof of Theorem 6, and in the next section it is written: “the Morse index theorem says that the inequality of theorem 6 is an equation.” ([1], pg. 233) With the torus action: “t passes from 0 to b” ([1], pg. 234) in the positive and negative directions. What is meant by augmented index, a(I), is that the cosine waves, as they are emitted, go out horizontally in all directions from the antenna.

In outer space, the way signals can travel long distances, the Morse index theorem comes very close to reality. In earth’s atmosphere the tori run out of momentum faster.

[1] Bishop, Richard L. and Crittenden, Richard J., “Geometry of Manifolds”, AMS CHELSEA PUBLISHING, Copyright 1964 held by the American Mathematical Society. Reprinted with corrections by the American Mathematical Society, 2001

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Nov 17 2022

The Coulomb Gauge    

There is another name for a free graviton, – it is “the identity isomorphism idEx, here denoted 1x, and the elements 1x, x ϵ M, act as unities for any multiplication in which they can take part” ([1], pg. 4). We see that unlike π (pi), idEx has some degree of circular polarization and/or skewed sine waves. In some writing instances π is the same as idEx and I am not trying to dictate how they should be used.

In the “Coulomb, radiation, or transverse gauge. This is the gauge in which ∇ · A = 0” ([2], pg. 241), we have a classical description. In the tensor sense, we have the forms Χij. The direction we choose for Χ is always transverse to the radial electric field at a chosen point, and the coordinate frame Ui is picked centered on the same point, creating a k-plane. We have that “The forms Χij are the transition forms for the Lie algebroid atlas {Ui, ψi, Θi}” ([1], pg. 206), and Θi varies with the density of the gamma ray field:

https://www.fruechtetheory.com/blog/2022/10/05/the-vector-potential/

Considering the transition form TP/G [1], we may here call G the density of the gravitational field. It is seen that as the density goes up the transition angle Θi decreases for a given charge and distance from the charge.

In Jackson’s problem 6.19 (b), “the original and space-inverted vector potential differ by a gauge transformation” ([2], pg. 291). Though the earth catches some of the sun’s gravitons all the time, the sun’s gravitons during the day are greater at the face of the earth than at night, and inverted, changing the Coulomb gauge.

With the “Lorenz condition (1867), ∇ · A + (1/c2) ẟφ/dt = 0” ([2], pg. 240), it is mathematically shown that the system {Ui, ψi, Θi} acts fast compared to the gradient of A, and
           ιX (φ ˄ ψ) = ιX(φ) ˄ ψ + (-1)i φ ˄ ιX(ψ)              ([1], pg. 306)
Also, as small as gravitons are, we may as well call the k-planes “flat connections Θi“ ([1], pg. 206).

Since we have “t the fixed point set of θ” ([3], pg. 401), t is on the center line of a gamma ray, and “g0 = t0 + p0 is a Cartan decomposition of g0“ ([3], pg. 184). In certain situations the center can shift as well, in which case “c0 is the center of t0” ([3], pg. 452) as t0 moves back and forth.

With the polarization factor, it is interesting to call h the vector summation of two gamma ray electric fields. When a gravitational field is yet more compact, h is the summation of more than 2 electric fields, so that “f: MH be a smooth map” ([1], pg. 183), and “Let h be a proper subalgebra of g of maximum dimension” ([3], pg. 160).

Incidentally, the identity isomorphism reminds us of quantum 1:

https://www.fruechtetheory.com/blog/2009/09/16/the-fundamental-quantum-unit/

[1] Mackenzie, Kirill C. H., “General Theory of Lie Groupoids and Lie Algebroids”, c. 2005 Kirill C. H. Mackenzie, London Mathematical Society
[2] Jackson, J. D., “Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition”, c. 1999 John David Jackson, John Wiley & Sons, Inc
[3] Helgason, Sigurdur, “Differential Geometry, Lie Groups, and Symmetric Spaces”, American Mathematical Society, 2012

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Oct 05 2022

The Vector Potential

In electrodynamics we find that “A quantum-mechanical description of photons necessitates quantization of only the vector potential” ([1], pg. 242), as in the summation of all the manifolds of gravitational fields at a given location. In a more densely packed summation of manifolds, the action of an electric charge will have a lesser rotational effect on the electric fields of the gamma rays than on a less dense field. The power of the rotation is the same in either field however, as long as we are referring to a gravitational field that is not too sparse for electric fields to propagate.

“The definition of B = ∇ x A specifies the curl of A, but it doesn’t say anything about the divergence – we are at liberty to pick that as we see fit, and zero is ordinarily the simplest choice.” ([2], pg. 235) The reason we may pick the divergence as zero is that the manifolds “are frozen in time for phonon transmission”:

https://www.fruechtetheory.com/blog/2022/03/29/transmission-of-the-coulomb-field/

As far as group action, Mackenzie [3] calls these “groupoids”, such as an ellipsoid, a spheroid, or another 3-dimensional shape. The definition of a spheroid I find is that it is like a sphere, but not a perfect sphere, and in the present case we have “oscillations and accordion motion in multiple axes”:

https://www.fruechtetheory.com/blog/2022/08/27/concentrated-group-action/

On a side note, though related to manifolds of gravitational fields, the Nobel Prize in Physics is being given this year for essentially this:

https://www.fruechtetheory.com/blog/2014/05/30/quantum-entanglement/

[1] Jackson, J. D., “Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition”, c. 1999 John David Jackson, John Wiley & Sons, Inc
[2] Griffiths, David J., “Introduction to Electrodynamics, Third Edition”, c. 1999, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
[3] Mackenzie, Kirill C. H., “General Theory of Lie Groupoids and Lie Algebroids”, c. 2005 Kirill C. H. Mackenzie, London Mathematical Society

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Mar 29 2022

Transmission of the Coulomb Field

The gamma ray field we live in is extremely rich and dense.  For the forms we find in nuclei and assorted particles, there is all the energy needed to drive all physical processes.

A Calabi-Yau shape within a nucleus or particle needs an external energy supply to maintain it. Gravity provides the energy. Here we are talking about force and pressure within a nucleus or particle, with only indirect connection to the outside, or connection at a point, curve, or surface.  There may also be tears joining and reforming.

Occasionally we refer to neutrons, protons, electrons, and nuclei.  A proton can be a hydrogen nucleus, though we list it separately when we talk about free protons, such as in the solar wind, particle colliders, or elsewhere.  Let’s take an Oxygen nucleus for example with the makings of 8 protons and 8 neutrons. Inside the nucleus, at the top, parachutes with baskets attached through ropes, or strings, instead of a parachutist, may cause some gravitons to loop around the insides of the parachutes, or branes, and into the baskets with enough force to hold the parachutes against the highest flux density of gravitons. Then the gravitons would find ways to tunnel through the baskets, pushed from behind.  In the motions of O2 in air, the parachutes may slide around to stay opposite the maximum flux.

This may also help explain weak interaction parity violation, because as an electron forming within a nucleus tries to escape, out the bottom is easier, due to escape out the top involving going through the gaps in the parachutes.  More than 50% would come out downward.

The manifold of the sun’s gamma ray field, the manifold of the earth’s gamma ray field, and likewise with other celestial bodies, provides a combination of symmetric spaces. During the day, at noon let’s say, the vectors of the sun’s manifold are in the opposite direction as the vectors of the earth’s terrestrial manifold. The Coulomb field uses all vectors of all manifolds to propagate, because all vectors, within a distance of 10 meters at least, are frozen in time for phonon transmission.

Let’s say M1 is the earth’s manifold, and M2 is the combination of the earth’s and sun’s manifolds. “…a diffeomorphism F: M1 → M2 of manifolds oriented by Ω1, Ω2, is orientation-preserving if F*Ω2 = λΩ1, where λ > 0 is a C function on M.” ([1] pg. 209) In our example here, λ > 1, and we have neglected the earth’s moon for simplification.

We may call a negative charge a left coset space, and a positive charge a right coset space. Each creates its own homomorphism in the dense gamma ray field, by a diffeomorphism on the electric fields of the gamma rays.  For one thing, there is circular polarization. For another, perpendicular to the greatest flux density of gamma rays the electric fields of the gamma rays may have skewed sine wave lobes, somewhere between a normal sine wave and a sawtooth. The Coulomb field acts tangent to the R vector sphere, and “(∇XY)p depends not on the vector field X but only on its value Xp at p.” ([1] pg. 309]  The way that the Coulomb field transmits radially is by centrifugal force through the gamma ray field.

The inside of an atom may be called a geodesic.  An electron path in an atomic orbital may also be called a geodesic, and “a long geodesic may not be minimal.” ([2] pg. 62)  This is due to the Lorentz force:

https://www.fruechtetheory.com/blog/2010/12/23/electron-orbitals-and-the-lorentz-force/

Gravity is an integral manifold.  Each orbital arc is a line integral absorbing gravitons.  The Coulomb field, on the other hand, is a charge induced diffeomorphism in the gamma ray field. Substantially outside of neutral atoms there is a propensity for positive and negative charges to cancel, though in the near field we have van der Waals forces.

Phonons for the Coulomb interaction are generated inside a charge.  The field created, that acts on another charge, may act on the outside of another charge, possibly only 5% of the diameter deep.  The fields may also act in the interspace, producing backflush to the charges that generate the fields.  Phonons of opposite chirality attract, and of the same chirality repel.

As points meet for the Coulomb force, the acceleration would be periodic, and relates to the vector potential.  A Fourier Series can be applied to the vector potential, with the direction of force being the side of the ‘x’ axis where the sine or cosine function has larger lobes.  Often a geodesic is called piecewise smooth, due to gravitons being separate, though on a classical scale the motion is smooth.

Two electrons can occupy the same atomic orbital if they have opposite half-integer spin projections.  This is the Pauli exclusion principle.  In terms of tensor math, “the subspaces are mutually orthogonal and each is a nontrivial irreducible subspace.” ([1] pg. 242)

[1] Boothby, William M., An Introduction to Differentiable Manifolds and Riemannian Geometry, Academic Press, 2003

[2] J. Milnor, based on lecture notes by M. Spivak and R. Wells, Morse Theory, Princeton University Press, 1969

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Nov 14 2021

Greatest Lower Bound

One would guess that the particle physicists and quantum field theorists may like a 1.3335 x 10-15 m diameter of a free electron, because it is closer to a point particle than many estimates of the diameter.  It is possible that 1.3335 x 10-15 m is also the limit inferior of the sequence S137 to Sn in an atomic orbital.

The maximum diameter, on the other hand, will depend on the element and on the orbital.  At a spin flip, electrons in all orbitals may reduce to 1.3335 x 10-15 m, before taking off on a new trajectory and increasing in diameter again.  We cannot speak of a limit superior of the sequence of diameters of the electron in an atomic orbital nevertheless.  That will depend on the direction of electron travel, and on whether the atom is at the surface of the earth, or at some other planet.  For the latter, it depends on the density of the gravitational field.

We may also ask whether 1.3335 x 10-15 m is the greatest lower bound at all locations in the universe.  This raises the question of whether the fine structure constant is a universal constant, or whether or not the Coulomb gauge is the same everywhere.

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Oct 24 2020

A Number

Published by under Mathematics

Fifteen years ago today I started an attempt to calculate gravity, after coming up with the concept on August 10th of the same year.  With a web search of “diameter of the electron”, reference number 3 of my April 2007 paper was found.  The link does not come in anymore, though there would be other places where Ernest Rutherford’s 1914 publication “The Structure of the Atom” can be found.

Starting with the diameter of the electron as the wavelength of a photon, I used hc/λ to produce an energy in Joules.  In the April 2007 paper it says: “Noticing that this number is on the order of the gravitational constant, it becomes worthwhile to proceed …”.

Sometime in 2007 or 2008 I sent a copy of the paper to Professor Converse Blanchard, with a note in the front thanking him for teaching me physics.  He sent the paper back to me with a cordial note in the front and a few markups throughout the paper.

One marking, at the spot noted above, was: “The grav constant is not an energy, and so this coincidence is without meaning.”  My answer to this is that a number is a number, – it has no units.  It is as Wilfred Kaplan states in Advanced Calculus on page 6: “We stress that det A is a number, …”  Otherwise, in the case of hc/λ we would speak of an “energy” and not a “number”.

It is worth noting that most of Professor Blanchard’s comments were constructive.  Later in the paper, relating to the quark coincidence, he wrote: “amusing!”.

My studies lately have been mostly in mathematics.  I have four books that are specifically on the topic of Advanced Calculus as well as several other math books.  Once in a while, I go back to a physics book and things come back quickly with my old markings and tabs sometimes leading the way.  Can do the same with engineering books, such as that Tds = du + Pdv.

Nineteen days after October 24, 2005, the calculation was made complete with
G = 4hf/3 m3 kg-1 s-2.  As can be seen in the diagram at the top of the blog, the units on the constant 4/3 are m/kg2.

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