Archive for the 'Quantum Mechanics' Category

Dec 04 2019

Electric and Magnetic Fields

Jon Rogawski has a cool diagram and calculation using Faraday’s Law on page 979 of his Multivariable Calculus book*. The magnetic field around the straight wire with an alternating current flowing in it produces a voltage in an adjacent looped wire with no conventional energy applied except that from the other wire.

Of course this magnetic field, and likewise for electric fields, must have a pervasive field in which to transmit. One may say it transmits through the air, however Faraday’s law also applies in space.

These E and B fields transmit by turning and bending the E and B fields of the dense gamma rays.

* Rogawski, Jon, Multivariable Calculus, W. H. Freeman and Company, c. 2008

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Aug 19 2019

The News

Published by under Astrophysics,Quantum Mechanics

News again says that the moon is glowing in gamma rays in the MeV range, and if people go back to the moon they will have to be shielded from the gamma rays. Of course scientists came up with a reason for the gamma rays, other than gravity, because they had to.

If astronauts were shielded completely from gamma rays, that would be trouble. Biological matter needs gamma rays at and close to 312.76 MeV to stay alive.

It should be noted, nevertheless, that there are lots of bare nuclei in the solar wind. The effects of constant exposure to the nuclei, and other non-gravity radiation, need to be looked at by qualified professionals.

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Aug 04 2019

Gamma Ray Field

It has been alluded to before on this website that the thick gamma ray field in which we reside is reminiscent of the aether.  A good book on the subject was written by Joseph Larmor.  Here is a sample:

“The basis of the present scientific procedure thus rests on the view, derivable as a consequence of general philosophical ideas, that the master-key to a complete unravelling of the general dynamical and physical relations of matter lies in the fact that it is constituted as a discrete molecular aggregate existing in the aether.” *

In the same paragraph, Larmor refers to “the properties of a continuum in space,”.

* Larmor, Joseph, AETHER AND MATTER, CAMBRIDGE AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1900, p. 78

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Feb 09 2017

E = mc^2

It occurred to me in January or February 2008, during my first foray into Quantum Mechanics, that the reason there is no 1/2 factor in front of mc^2 in Einstein’s formula E=mc^2, – like there is in the Newtonian formula for kinetic energy K. E. = (1/2)mv^2, is that there are gravitons inside a fundamental particle that are bouncing back and forth against gravitational pressure on the outside, which doubles the energy.

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Feb 24 2016

Johnson–Fruechte Experiment

Produce a multiple layer wire wound coil around a roughly 2 inch diameter iron core, maybe 8 feet long. Set the cardboard tube from a roll of paper towels, on end, up on a shelf. Get as much capacitance as you can hooked up to the coil and charge up the capacitance. Aim the device at the top half of the cardboard tube, making sure the other end ‘sees’ terrestrial earth, and dump the capacitance all at once to produce a high value of current. Gravitons like to follow magnetic field lines, so one would see if the cardboard tube can be pulled over.

A software engineer across the hall from me, Jeff Johnson, who I have worked with for many years, came up with the idea of loading a lot of capacitance, and producing a high current by dumping it with one switch. The wire gauge would have to be figured out based on the current that would be produced.

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Dec 23 2015

Adhesion

Published by under Quantum Mechanics

Go to an adhesion seminar, like I did years ago with a fellow engineer, and the speaker may or may not tell you that the main component of adhesion is due to the most fundamental of van der Waals forces, that being dipole-dipole electrostatic attraction, which force falls off at a rate proportional to one over distance to the fourth power. The seminar leader is likely to tell you nevertheless that the surfaces should be clean and dry.

Obviously adhesion can also, and usually does, have a mechanical component. This is especially true in the shear direction when a surface is course, or purposely roughed up first. Pressure is often applied when adhering surfaces to force the adhesive into crevices, for the mechanical component to grab better, and to bring molecules in closer contact for the electrostatic component. If the instructions for the adhesive say to hold the pressure for a certain amount of time at room temperature, that is to let the molecules creep into crevices and to allow the dipoles to move themselves into positions that increase the number of potential energy wells that relate to movement and positioning of the dipoles.

The electrostatic component is strongest in the first 3 or 4 molecular layers of relatively complex adhesive molecules, so this makes it easier to see why pressure helps. The ‘dry’ rule is mostly because water does not make a good adhesive. The ‘clean’ rule is a little more complex. Chemists have made adhesives good at inducing dipoles into relatively non-polar material, but it is best if the material being bonded to has consistent isotropic structure. When the dipoles are setting up the energy wells, it is more efficient when dipoles of a locale ‘see’ a uniform structure across a hemispherical view. Nature prefers mathematical order. Also, an adhesive may stick to a piece of debris, but the piece of debris will probably not stick to the substrate.

Some of the strongest adhesives are solidified by heat curing, when cross linking occurs. If the dipole positions end up more rigid, they can maintain strength under high strain.

For a good description of dipole-dipole bonding, see:

Tipler, Paul A. and Llewellyn, Ralph A., Modern Physics, Sixth Edition, W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, c. 2012, pgs. 387-388

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Nov 17 2014

The Pion

Published by under Quantum Mechanics

As an example of one of the several particles that must stay, the pion “has a range of 1 Fermi”.  This is a compression factor of close to 4 compared to a graviton.  It is NOT a graviton, even though it probably was one at an earlier point in time.

The pion is a “mediator of nuclear force.” *

 

*  R. Shankar, Principles of Quantum Mechanics, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, c. 1994, pg 366

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Jun 24 2014

Macroscopic vs. Atomic G

Dan Fordice sent me two articles about newer experiments that were set up to measure the gravitational constant.  One of the articles referenced a paper by Tino et al. where the constant is determined using one mass type of hundreds of kilograms of tungsten, and the other being laser cooled rubidium atoms.  The apparatus involving the tungsten masses looks like it may be the same apparatus as was used for the Schwarz et al. experiment from 1998 [1].  The Tino et al. value for G is given as 6.667 x 10-11 m3kg-1s-2 [2] with statistical uncertainty and systematic uncertainty given in the paper.

When we have a macroscopic mass where atoms are chemically bonded, and masses are held together by various means, a gravitational field acting on one atom can have a component of force on another atom that is chemically bonded to it.  A single atom free of bonding to other atoms, on the other hand, has fewer instantaneous electron orbital path vectors than a macroscopic mass of several kilograms when we consider it as a whole.  Therefore one would expect that the value of G when measured on individual atoms would be lower than a conventional value of 6.672 x 10-11 m3kg-1s-2 [3].

The gravitational constant based on one third the mass of the proton is 6.6807 x 10-11 m3kg-1s-2, but does it ever get this high in reality?  Planets in orbit around the sun would get close to this value.

G = 6.672 x 10-11 m3kg-1s-2 is probably still a good value to use when considering macroscopic masses on the surface of the earth, or in the atmosphere, or in orbit around the earth.

 

 

[1]  Schwarz, Robertson, Niebauer, Faller, “A Free-Fall Determination of the Newtonian Constant of Gravity”, Science, 282, 2230-2234; 1998: http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/PUBS_LIB/BigG/bigg.html

[2]  G. Lamporesi, A. Bertoldi, L Cacciapuoti, M. Prevedelli, G.M. Tino, “Determination of the Newtonian Gravitational Constant Using Atom Interferometry”, http://arxiv.org/abs/0801.1580, 2013

[3]  Tipler, Paul A., Physics, Worth Publishers, Inc., 1976, inside back cover

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May 30 2014

Quantum Entanglement

Published by under Quantum Mechanics

In the news is quantum entanglement, or what Einstein called spooky action at a distance.  Here is one of the articles:

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/30/science/scientists-report-finding-reliable-way-to-teleport-data.html?_r=0

This works by phonon transmission through a gravitational field, which is transmission that is faster than the speed of light.

Yaaaaaaaaaaaawn.

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Sep 01 2011

Fermilab Magnets

With the Fermilab Tevatron shutting down this month, I wonder if its magnets could be used for a space debris vacuum.  The problem pops up in the news periodically, and did again today: 

http://www.usatoday.com/tech/science/space/story/2011-08-31/Solutions-sought-for-growing-space-junk-problem/50207662/1

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