Archive for the 'String Theory' Category

Mar 29 2022

Transmission of the Coulomb Field

The gamma ray field we live in is extremely rich and dense.  For the forms we find in nuclei and assorted particles, there is all the energy needed to drive all physical processes.

A Calabi-Yau shape within a nucleus or particle needs an external energy supply to maintain it. Gravity provides the energy. Here, we are talking about force and pressure within a nucleus or particle, with only indirect connection to the outside, or connection at a point, curve, or surface.  There may also be tears joining and reforming.

Occasionally we refer to neutrons, protons, electrons, and nuclei.  A proton can be a hydrogen nucleus, though we list it separately when we talk about free protons, such as in the solar wind, particle colliders, or elsewhere.  Let’s take an Oxygen nucleus for example with the makings of 8 protons and 8 neutrons. Inside the nucleus, at the top, parachutes with baskets attached through ropes, or strings, instead of a parachutist, may cause some gravitons to loop around the insides of the parachutes, or branes, and into the baskets with enough force to hold the parachutes against the highest flux density of gravitons. Then the gravitons would find ways to tunnel through the baskets, pushed from behind.  In the motions of O2 in air, the parachutes may slide around to stay opposite the maximum flux.

This may also help explain weak interaction parity violation, because as an electron forming within a nucleus tries to escape, out the bottom is easier, due to escape out the top involving going through the gaps in the parachutes.  More than 50% would come out downward.

The manifold of the sun’s gamma ray field, the manifold of the earth’s gamma ray field, and likewise with other celestial bodies, provides a combination of symmetric spaces. During the day, at noon let’s say, the vectors of the sun’s manifold are in the opposite direction as the vectors of the earth’s terrestrial manifold. The Coulomb field uses all vectors of all manifolds to propagate, because all vectors, within a distance of 10 meters at least, are frozen in time for phonon transmission.

Let’s say M1 is the earth’s manifold, and M2 is the combination of the earth’s and sun’s manifolds. “…a diffeomorphism F: M1 → M2 of manifolds oriented by Ω1, Ω2, is orientation-preserving if F*Ω2 = λΩ1, where λ > 0 is a C function on M.” ([1] pg. 209) In our example here, λ > 1, and we have neglected the earth’s moon for simplification.

We may call a negative charge a left coset space, and a positive charge a right coset space. Each creates its own homomorphism in the dense gamma ray field, by a diffeomorphism on the electric fields of the gamma rays.  For one thing, there is circular polarization. For another, perpendicular to the greatest flux density of gamma rays the electric fields of the gamma rays may have skewed sine wave lobes, somewhere between a normal sine wave and a sawtooth. The Coulomb field acts tangent to the R vector sphere, and “(∇XY)p depends not on the vector field X but only on its value Xp at p.” ([1] pg. 309]  The way that the Coulomb field transmits radially is by centrifugal force through the gamma ray field.

The inside of an atom may be called a geodesic.  An electron path in an atomic orbital may also be called a geodesic, and “a long geodesic may not be minimal.” ([2] pg. 62)  This is due to the Lorentz force:

Gravity is an integral manifold.  Each orbital arc is a line integral absorbing gravitons.  The Coulomb field, on the other hand, is a charge induced diffeomorphism in the gamma ray field. Substantially outside of neutral atoms there is a propensity for positive and negative charges to cancel, though in the near field we have van der Waals forces.

Phonons for the Coulomb interaction are generated inside a charge.  The field created, that acts on another charge, may act on the outside of another charge, possibly only 5% of the diameter deep.  The fields may also act in the interspace, producing backflush to the charges that generate the fields.  Phonons of opposite chirality attract, and of the same chirality repel.

As points meet for the Coulomb force, the acceleration would be periodic, and relates to the vector potential.  A Fourier Series can be applied to the vector potential, with the direction of force being the side of the ‘x’ axis where the sine or cosine function has larger lobes.  Often a geodesic is called piecewise smooth, due to gravitons being separate, though on a classical scale the motion is smooth.

Two electrons can occupy the same atomic orbital if they have opposite half-integer spin projections.  This is the Pauli exclusion principle.  In terms of tensor math, “the subspaces are mutually orthogonal and each is a nontrivial irreducible subspace.” ([1] pg. 242)

[1] Boothby, William M., An Introduction to Differentiable Manifolds and Riemannian Geometry, Academic Press, 2003

[2] J. Milnor, based on lecture notes by M. Spivak and R. Wells, Morse Theory, Princeton University Press, 1969

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Feb 11 2022

Isotropic Property of the Coulomb Potential

In the vicinity of where our machines have been, we know that electric current will flow in any designated direction and is not particular to the direction of the highest flux density of gravitons.

For various reasons, we cannot have protons and electrons continuously flipping, – the Stern-Gerlach experiment proves that they do not. There must be internal processes of the proton and electron which produce isotropic electric fields. Some of this was previously addressed in two blog entries:

It is possible that not all conjugate wave gravitons pass straight through a proton or electron, or that even with a free proton or electron that the gravitons leaving have just entered. Some may make a horseshoe pattern and come out near the same point entered. They may be able to come back out at any angle. As compressed as the gravitons become inside a particle, almost any shape can occur. Gravitational pressure dictates a consistent size of a free proton or electron.

With the flux density coming out of the face of the earth, we seem to have a conundrum with the idea of gravitational pressure, one side having much greater pressure than the other. Why do gravitons not burst out the top, resulting in particle collapse? It also begs the question as to why electrons are perfectly round, and not teardrop shaped:

Possibly, branes form at the top of an electron and reform in a spin flip.  These branes would be linked inside the particle so that they do not bust out, and may deflect some exiting gravitons at various angles. These branes may also help keep the electron round. Here we are designating “top” as away from the highest flux density of gravitons.

As far as isotropic fields, at this point we must say that it is designed internal to the proton or electron and is of consistent pattern.  The open field starts just outside the particle, so it is maintained that electric and magnetic fields transmit openly by “phase shift and chirality” or “phase shift and parity”.  The Coulomb force is considered instantaneous at reasonable distances:

It appears as though this is necessary, because then the speed that free gravitons travel at, the speed of light in a vacuum, does not effect the electric and magnetic fields generated.

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Feb 10 2022


Inside a proton or electron, events may approach the Planck length.  The frequency of the waves would not change from that of a free space graviton, though wavelength and amplitude do change.

Waves inside a particle may make loops in certain circumstances, not necessarily around the perimeter, though internally, and required because of all the traffic.

Certainly, the ways these vibrations set up in a proton or electron determines whether we have a positive or negative charge.  If we did not have any loops and curves, the versatility needed would be hard to set up.  It is somewhat like a Hilbert space with wrapped up dimensions.

Put another way: “A string vibrating in one particular pattern might have the properties of an electron, while a string vibrating in a different pattern might have the properties of an up-quark, a down-quark, or any of the other particle species in Table 12.1.  It is not that an “electron string” makes up an electron …Instead the single species of string can account for a great variety of particles …” *

If you peruse this website, you will find other areas of unification.

* Greene, Brian, The Fabric of the Cosmos, c. 2004 Vintage Books, a division of Random House, Inc., p. 346-347

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Feb 09 2022

Core of an Electron or Proton

We can see from the calculation of the diameter of a free electron that as the density of the gravitational field goes down, the diameter increases.  This would be because of less gravitational pressure on the outside of the electron.

As gravitons enter a proton, electron, neutron, or nucleus, as conjugate waves or to take residence, the buildup takes on a fuzzy look that makes them look larger.  If we take a core diameter of 1.3335 x 10-15 m, the part that produces the fundamental charge, and add one graviton wavelength, we arrive at 5.30 x 10-15 m diameter, which is close to the classical diameter of the electron, 5.64 x 10-15 m *.  One graviton wavelength is used because one-half wavelength is on one side of the electron and one-half wavelength of a different graviton is on the other side.

We may call these outer layer gravitons tentacles or strings.  When nuclear fission occurs, the de Broglie wavelength of a neutron can come in at an angle where the strings on each entity hook and help pull the neutron into the nucleus. The cross section for this process is larger for slow neutrons vs fast neutrons in part because of the longer de Broglie wavelength.

* Jackson, J. D., Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition, c. 1999 John David Jackson, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., p. 695

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Jun 22 2010

Subatomic Particle Structure

Research on the internal structure of subatomic particles has been ongoing since the early days of particle accelerators and cosmic ray experiments, and there are several points of view that merit study.  The view promoted here has not much new, and should sound familiar.  The very stable proton, as CERN would agree, is a worthy starting point.

First of all, “there is no hard core to the proton. … It could be like jelly, or it could be like a strawberry, with seeds scattered throughout, but no accumulation of them at the centre.”  When scattering e + p is elastic, the resulting Bjorken scaling “is interpreted as indicating that the scattering takes place off point like constituents of the proton, called partons.”, where “the structure factors are functions of ω only.” ([1], pgs 16-18).

Since “q is the photon 4-momentum”, for “an individual parton of mass m” we can use the relativistic mass of the graviton, mg = 5.575 x 10-28 kg [2], in which case the dimensionless ω = (2Mν)/q2, with q2 = 2mν ([1], pg 17), gives ω = mp/mg = 3.

One may think of the internal structure of the proton as a crystal lattice, with nodes, or partons, that are basically zero points of eigenvectors, where internal and pass through wave functions add or subtract momentum.  If you are a string theorist, added head to tail you may choose to look at the vector structure as vibrating strings.  If you have a Mechanical or Civil engineering degree you may think of the structure as finite elements, – not necessarily tetrahedral however.  The nodes are the seeds of Ryder’s strawberry.

The defined boundary of a subatomic particle results from gravitational pressure at its barrier domain.  Let us view then the particle as a wave packet “when the wave packet is subject to the influence of a parabolic potential.  Physically, this result arises from the fact that the tendency of the wave packet to spread is compensated by the potential, whose effect is to push the wave packet towards the origin from regions where V(x) is large.” ([3], Compl. Gv, 3.c., pg 572)  Due to gravitational pressure, V(x) would be large at the barrier domain of the particle.  With consistent frequency, ωg =  4.75 x 1023 rad. sec-1 [2], gravitons step through the barrier easily.

Baryons and fermions would be similar in structure, though differing greatly in density.  Scattering can happen through barrier elasticity or partial penetration with node to node scattering.  Deeper node penetration on a large nucleus can result in alpha decay.

[1] Ryder, Lewis H., Quantum Field Theory, Second Edition, Cambridge University Press, 1996


[3] Cohen-Tannoudji, Dui, Laloë, Quantum Mechanics, Hermann, 1977, Paris, France

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