Nov 14 2021

Greatest Lower Bound

One would guess that the particle physicists and quantum field theorists may like a 1.3335 x 10-15 m diameter of a free electron, because it is closer to a point particle than many estimates of the diameter.  It is possible that 1.3335 x 10-15 m is also the limit inferior of the sequence S137 to Sn in an atomic orbital.

The maximum diameter, on the other hand, will depend on the element and on the orbital.  At a spin flip, electrons in all orbitals may reduce to 1.3335 x 10-15 m, before taking off on a new trajectory and increasing in diameter again.  We cannot speak of a limit superior of the sequence of diameters of the electron in an atomic orbital nevertheless.  That will depend on the direction of electron travel, and on whether the atom is at the surface of the earth, or at some other planet.  For the latter, it depends on the density of the gravitational field.

We may also ask whether 1.3335 x 10-15 m is the greatest lower bound at all locations in the universe.  This also raises the question of whether the fine structure constant is a universal constant, or whether or not the Coulomb gauge is the same everywhere

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Sep 28 2021

Diameter of the Electron

Published by under Quantum Mechanics at 09:00 am

It has been surmised that with conjugate wave gravitons, the number of gravitons in a free electron in the earth’s locale may be the reciprocal of the fine structure constant.  We may then use this number to determine a possible diameter of the electron.

First, start with the energy:

(5.011 x 10-11 J) x 137 = 6.8651 x 10-9 J

Then use the electron’s spin angular momentum:

ħ/2 = (½) mvr = (½) mr2ω

Rearranging:

ω = ħ / (mr2)

Considering rotational kinetic energy, we have:

Ek = (½) [Iω2] = (½) [ (½) mr2 ] ω2 = 6.8651 x 10-9 J

Substituting ω from above:

Ek = (½) [ (½) mr2 ] [ħ / (mr2]2 = (½) (½) [ħ2 / (mr2)]

1/r2 = [(4) (6.8651 x 10-9 J) (9.1095 x 10-31 kg)] / ħ2

r = 6.6676 x 10-16 m

D = 2r = 1.3335 x 10-15 m

ω = ħ / (mr2) = 2.6040 x 1026 rad/sec

This angular velocity is fictitious, though it can be used in calculations due to Green’s Theorem (see April 2007 paper).

Of course the number of gravitons in an electron in an atomic orbital varies, and thus the electron diameter would vary also.

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Jan 25 2021

Final Mediator

Going back to the April 2007 paper once again: “… and the same Coulomb force being the final mediator of the gravitational force as proposed, the mass energy of the proton appears to be integral to gravitational field action.”, we can go further back in history to examine the path of how we arrived at this place.

In the scientific community, the cause of gravity is by many still considered as unknown.  As Hughes-Hallett et al. puts it in relation to the gravitational force: “How does acceleration come about?  How does the velocity change?  Through the action of forces.  Newton placed a new emphasis on the importance of forces.  Newton’s laws of motion do not say what a force is, they say how it acts.” 1

Newton himself says in The Principia: “…considering in this treatise not the species of forces and their physical qualities but their quantities and mathematical proportions, as I have explained in the definitions.” 2  In Definition 8 Newton says: “This concept is purely mathematical, for I am not now considering the physical causes and sites of forces.” 3

Roger Cotes, Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy at Cambridge University wrote in his Editor’s Preface to the Second Edition of The Principia: “But will gravity be called an occult cause and be cast out of natural philosophy on the grounds that the cause of gravity itself is occult and not yet found?” 4  Electromagnetic waves were not yet discovered in 1713 when Cotes wrote this, so it is difficult to imagine how anyone could have discovered the cause of gravity back then.

1  Hughes-Hallet, Gleason, McCallum et al., Calculus, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005, p.304

2  Cohen, Whitman, Isaac Newton, The Principia, Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, University of California Press, 1999, p. 588

3  Ibid., p. 407

4  Ibid,. p. 392

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Oct 24 2020

A Number

Published by under Mathematics at 08:20 am

Fifteen years ago today I started an attempt to calculate gravity, after coming up with the concept on August 10th of the same year.  With a web search of “diameter of the electron”, reference number 3 of my April 2007 paper was found.  The link does not come in anymore, though there would be other places where Ernest Rutherford’s 1914 publication “The Structure of the Atom” can be found.

Starting with the diameter of the electron as the wavelength of a photon, I used hc/λ to produce an energy in Joules.  In the April 2007 paper it says: “Noticing that this number is on the order of the gravitational constant, it becomes worthwhile to proceed …”.

Sometime in 2007 or 2008 I sent a copy of the paper to Professor Converse Blanchard, with a note in the front thanking him for teaching me physics.  He sent the paper back to me with a cordial note in the front and a few markups throughout the paper.

One marking, at the spot noted above, was: “The grav constant is not an energy, and so this coincidence is without meaning.”  My answer to this is that a number is a number, – it has no units.  It is as Wilfred Kaplan states in Advanced Calculus on page 6: “We stress that det A is a number, …”  Otherwise, in the case of hc/λ we would speak of an “energy” and not a “number”.

It is worth noting that most of Professor Blanchard’s comments were constructive.  Later in the paper, relating to the quark coincidence, he wrote: “amusing!”.

My studies lately have been mostly in mathematics.  I have four books that are specifically on the topic of Advanced Calculus as well as several other math books.  Once in a while, I go back to a physics book and things come back quickly with my old markings and tabs sometimes leading the way.  Can do the same with engineering books, such as that Tds = du + Pdv.

Nineteen days after October 24, 2005, the calculation was made complete with
G = 4hf/3 m3 kg-1 s-2.  As can be seen in the diagram at the top of the blog, the units on the constant 4/3 are m/kg2.

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Sep 25 2020

University of Glasgow

Published by under Education at 09:28 am

The students are asking “Why have they sent us here?”, due to quarantines and not being able to attend classes. What the students really need to ask is something like: ‘Why have they sent us here if the university is not going to teach us how gravity really works?’

https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-scotland-54292728

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Sep 12 2020

Sellery Hall

Published by under Education at 04:31 pm

At quarantined Sellery Hall there are several signs in the windows such as “HELP”, “HELP US”, “SOS”, and “FREE US”. This really tugs on the heart, and all they need is for physicists to wake up and announce quantum gravity. With this post I am TRYING to help them.

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Jun 04 2020

Fermi Bubbles

Published by under Astrophysics at 03:43 pm

This June 2020 article on the Fermi Bubbles of the Milky Way Galaxy concerns mapping the bubbles in the visible light spectrum: https://phys.org/news/2020-06-optical-milky-fermi-probe.html

The bubbles were originally found in the gamma ray spectrum. Previous entries are here: http://www.fruechtetheory.com/blog/2010/11/25/light-lensing-and-the-gamma-ray-bubbles/, and here: http://www.fruechtetheory.com/blog/2010/11/29/lensing-answer/

As far as their purpose, they may help stabilize the plane of the Milky Way by emitting gamma rays in a narrow Gaussian centered on 7.562 x 10^22 Hz. I have read that researchers have found that the same type of bubbles exist at other galaxies as well.

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May 29 2020

From a Church Sermon

Published by under General at 09:59 am

“People are unreasonable, illogical and self-centered. Love them anyway.

If you do good, people will accuse you of selfish, ulterior motives. Do good anyway.

If you are successful, you will win false friends and true enemies. Succeed anyway.

Honesty and frankness make you vulnerable. Be honest and frank anyway.

The biggest people with the biggest ideas are shot down by the smallest people with the smallest ideas. Think big anyway.

People favor underdogs but follow only top dogs. Fight for some underdogs anyway.

What you spend years building may be destroyed overnight. Build anyway.

Give the world the best you have and you may get kicked in the teeth. Give the world the best you have anyway.”

Unknown Source

From a sermon by Interim Pastor Nancy Toensing of Grace Lutheran Church, Fairmont, MN – May 17, 2020

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Apr 17 2020

Russia’s DA-ASAT

Published by under Newtonian Mechanics at 11:08 am

You can read the news on this recently tested system for yourself. One concern is the extra amount of space junk it could produce. This web site tells how to pull down space junk, missiles, and satellites.

I really do not think that the USA would want to let Russia or China use www.fruechtetheory.com for weapons first, so the USA had better get on it!

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Apr 11 2020

Some GOOD NEWS for the USA and the World

Published by under Education at 01:33 pm

Since the scientific community continues to look for answers to so many questions, here is an answer to a big mystery.  In the midst of the havoc that Covid-19 has dumped on all of us, it is time to share with the USA and the World a discovery that will brighten our days with encouragement and our hearts with hope. All of education needs this – students, teachers and professors.  All of science needs this – physicists, scientists, and researchers.

After over 14 years of waiting in the shadows, it is time for the world to know.  In an equation of elegant simplicity, the search for a grand unification theory has been found.  With mathematical quantification, G = 4hf/3 is the key that unlocks the door to untold dimensions of scientific discovery for the future.

There are many Americans who want the world to see what America can do, well here it is.  With this knowledge, discovery can be taken to new levels that have never been seen before.

So let’s go!  Get this good news unleashed to the USA and to the World!  We need it!

Cynthia Fruechte

BST MSU-Mankato

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