Archive for October, 2010

Oct 07 2010

The Standard Model

Published by under Nuclear Physics

Even if gravitons are the fundamental quantum unit, it is beyond obvious that many other electromagnetic waves and particles have their own functions in the physical world.

Electrons, along with protons, alpha particles, and a few other nuclei are stable, whether part of atoms or free.  They are synchronized with a gravitational field providing barrier pressure and conjugate wave functions.  Several other particles in the standard model typically have lifetimes shorter than a micro second, found often through scattering experiments.  Since we cannot call a time so short an ‘existence’, one occasionally finds statements by physicists that these particles have never been found in the free state.

With gravitons coming in at all polar angles to a subatomic particle or to a nucleus, combinations of mass, angular momentum, parity, isospin, and charge, to maintain a nucleus or to produce intermediate particles, are needed in order to produce the four fundamental forces of nature.  In other words, understanding in terms of internal and free gravitons, with their wave functions and conjugates, is simply not enough.  The uncertainty principle prevents us from obtaining a clear picture of the inside of an atomic nucleus or an electron at any instant in time.

Many of the gamma rays emitted through nuclear fission or a scattering experiment are in the tens and hundreds of keV in terms of energy.  For nuclear fission, it is nuclear multipole vibrations and moments, and internal wave functions that provide the spring action to eject particles from a nucleus.  In scattering we can add incident particle energies.

As far as internal gravitons, no matter how many are involved with an ejection, recoil energy expenditure and other effects can cause the 312.76 MeV gamma rays to reduce in energy down into the keV range when emitted, – which are of course then no longer gravitons.  Internal wave functions with transverse momentum to the ejection of a particle from a nucleus, which would be most of them, may acquire angular momentum or circular or elliptic polarity in the process, in both the remaining nucleus and in the resultant scattered particles, whether it be alpha or beta decay, or the short lived quark, gluon, pion, ω meson, ρ meson, kaon, W± boson, Z boson, or the hyperon and other strange baryons, to name a few.

As far as free gravitons captured as they enter a nucleus, some may be used to manufacture W± and Z0 bosons in order to maintain the weak nuclear force.

We cannot go forward with physics by throwing out the standard model.  It must stay, and only be revised by agreement of the physics community as a whole.

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