Archive for March, 2009

Mar 15 2009

Electric Charges

Published by under Classical Electrodynamics

The problem of what free charges, including nuclei, do with gravitons that arrive in a direct path has not been addressed to a great extent, though a physics PhD friend of mine has at least thought about it as relating to a free electron.  The necessity of dealing with the subject comes not only from when “energy is irretrievably radiated away by the acceleration fields” ([1], pg. 466), but also directly through electrostatics.
Let us first consider the acceleration fields.  As one example of power being radiated by an accelerated point charge, we have synchrotron radiation, the power formula for a free electron traveling near the speed of light being:
P = (2ke2γ4c) / (3r2)                      [2].
In Gaussian units, with k = 1, this becomes:
P = (2e24γ4) / (3ρ2)                   ([3], (14.31), pg 667)
In the second equation the Greek letter ρ (Rho) is used for the radius of the synchrotron accelerator, instead of r, and a β4 factor shows up which GSU left out because β = v/c is close to 1 in a synchrotron.
It could be reasoned that synchrotron radiation energy is replenished to the electron through electric and magnetic fields, by way of electric charges and currents produced by steam powered generators through the burning of hydrocarbon fuels, or nuclear fission.
Nevertheless, I do think that free charges absorb gravitons as part of the process of energy replacement when radiation is given off.  What keeps them stable is the main challenge here.  Why would they not keep absorbing gravitational energy until we end up with giant particles?  Is it gravitational pressure, in part, that keeps them at a certain charge and mass?
Fundamental charges and other ions most certainly allow gravitons to pass through, otherwise there would be scattering going on all the time and utter chaos.  Indeed, the gravitons passing through may provide conjugate wave functions that help keep the particles together.  It could be that gravity not only allows large masses to attract, but also provides for the continued existence of particle mass.
Moving on to electrostatics, the energy of a point charge is given as:
W = (ε0/2) ∫all space E2 dτ                     ([1], (2.45), pg 94),
which turns out to be infinite as Griffiths shows ([1], Sect 2.4.4, pg 95).
Here the same process of gravitons providing conjugate wave functions would be taking place, and also we may have the electric field transmitting through the gravitational field, shouldering through the gravitons in a highly relativistic sense.  The infinite energy would no longer be a mystery, though it is not really infinite because the known universe is gradually losing gravitational energy as some gravitons escape into deep space.  The result is nothing new to physicists; our galaxy is expanding at an accelerating rate.
As far as gravitational conjugate wave functions relating to conservation of charge, it has been postulated that “the average number of gravitons in an electron, in an atomic orbital at the face of the earth, could possibly be 137/2 = 68.5” [4].  Not only for electrons in atomic orbitals then, but also for free electrons, the gravitational field providing conjugate wave functions may increase the number of gravitons involved in making a fundamental charge to 137.
Considering all, in the sudden absence of a gravitational field we are presented with an alternative to sequential atomic collapse in a slowly decreasing gravitational field, which is fundamental particles simply flying apart in a high energy gamma ray burst.  Gravitons like to follow gently arcing uniform magnetic field lines, so a rotating intense magnetic field deep in space, from a neutron star for example, could produce such a phenomenon if its path intersected the path of a more conventional mass.  These are not to be confused however with lower energy gamma ray bursts, such as those that come from the earth in the milliseconds before a lightning strike, due to the Compton scattering of gravitons.
[1] Griffiths, David J., Introduction to Electrodynamics, Third Edition, c. 1999, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
[2] GSU Hyperphysics:
[3] Jackson, J. D., Classical Electrodynamics, Third Edition, c. 1999 John David Jackson, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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