Archive for September, 2023

Sep 30 2023

Michelson-Morley experiment

It has been said that “The electric field travels faster the denser a gravitational field is, though the speed difference may not be discernable.” Also: “What we have is an infinitesimal zigzag pattern, though when we back out to the classical level, it does not matter for any application.”


As it turns out, the speed difference may have been indirectly discerned by the Michelson-Morley experiment in 1887, and the “infinitesimal zigzag pattern” is less for a denser gravitational field.

A picture and description of the Michelson-Morley experiment tells it was mounted on a large block of sandstone, for stability, and floated on an annular trough of mercury for rotation.

The block that the experiment was on, and the sensors and brackets in the forward direction of travel of the whole apparatus, would have helped decompress the gamma rays toward the center of the apparatus, near the forward brackets. The brackets behind would have compressed the gamma rays. What was probably happening was a slow-fast travel of the electromagnetic waves in one direction, and a fast-slow travel in the opposite direction.

ηi is when the center t of a gamma ray moves one way in an alternative direction. ξi is a smooth electric field, and ηi and ξi work together to smear electric fields of the gamma rays into electromagnetic waves of larger dimensions, as a laser, emitted cell phone wave, etc. As a tornado takes up air molecules and expels others, these waves of lower frequency than a graviton take up gravitons they reach. “Assume that ξ is affine” ([1], pg. 377), and “ξ is a (column) vector in Rn” ([2], pg. 269). The gravitons that are expelled can take off in almost any direction. “ξi and ηi are orthogonal” ([3], pg. 315], because they are independent. “t” is not an electric field, it is a singularity.

ξi is caused by the H field, though it is specific to an emitted wave, subject to “the compatibility conditions which ξ and H are obliged to satisfy” ([1], pg. 362), and “ξ is a pure translation” ([4], pg. 193).

In the Michelson-Morley experiment, in the denser gamma ray field the ξ field is more efficient and moves faster, and the wavelength is slightly shorter than average. In the less dense gamma ray field, the wavelength is slightly longer than average.

[1] Mackenzie, Kirill C. H., “General Theory of Lie Groupoids and Lie Algebroids”, c. 2005 Kirill C. H. Mackenzie, London Mathematical Society

[2] Kobayashi, Shoshichi and Nomizu, Katsumi, “Foundations of Differential Geometry Volume II”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., c. 1969

[3] Stoker, James J., “Differential Geometry”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., c. 1969

[4] Kobayashi, Shoshichi and Nomizu, Katsumi, “Foundations of Differential Geometry Volume I”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., c. 1963

2 responses so far